The First Saudi Oil Embargo

General mobilization - Suez battle
On October 29, 202 Israeli paratroopers attacked the Sinai desert. At the same time, Israeli tanks advanced in the heart of the desert to meet the paratroopers. Two hours after the start of the aggression, all the stations of the world received the news. The astonishment did not appear in London and Paris, they were aware of it. The situation was different in other world capitals. The US government asked for the Security Council to be held immediately. It should be noted that the timing of the Israeli attack came at a time when the Arab countries were expected to conclude the Charter for the Unification of Military Command. This was decided after the meeting of Arab delegations (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Jordan) in December in Riyadh.
On the basis of the Tripartite Treaty (May 25, 1950), Britain and France warned both Israel and Egypt to stop fighting under military intervention. On October 30, British-French joint naval and air fleets advanced from Cyprus towards the Suez Canal. The United States died and denounced the attack it had opposed by diplomatic means. The US president ordered the Sixth Fleet to sail towards the Canal and try to block the British-French fleets.
But France and Britain have hit America's threats. The intention was to hasten the occupation operations to put them in the fait accompli. The bombers bombed Egyptian territory. The Comandos clashed with the Egyptian army and people. The attackers hit Egyptian airports and ports. And inflicted heavy damage.
The battle recorded heavy losses for both sides. Egypt raised its complaint to the Security Council. Global public opinion was on its side. On November 4, the Security Council issued 75 votes to none, a resolution to immediately stop the fighting and the withdrawal of Britain, France and Israel from Egypt and to condemn the aggressors.
Following the decision, the Soviet Union threatened on November 5 London, Paris and Tel Aviv to strike it with guided missiles if it did not withdraw. In accordance with a deliberate political tactic, the Security Council's decision to listen to public opinion through radio and news agencies preceded the warning. The Soviets made calls in the Arab capitals they sought. On January 6, Egypt appealed to China to send volunteers. At the same time, the Hungarian revolution took place and was said to have taken place in order to divert Moscow's attention from Egypt.
The aim of the aggression was to overthrow President Abdel Nasser and restore Major General Mohammed Najib and return to the Canal and restore a foothold in Egypt. As for Israel, its aim was to take over part of the Gulf of Aqaba to open a traffic breach on the Red Sea, which unfortunately had what it wanted. President Nasser agreed to the entry of the international police into the Canal area. The battle ended with the return of Britain, France and Israel on their heels.
Egypt's aim was to nationalize the Canal, which aims to achieve the Egyptian sovereignty and thus replace the loans by increasing the income of the Canal Company, which amounted to $ 100 million annually. The most important of all was considered the strongest slap directed by the Arab East to the West after the victory of Salahuddin.

King Saud leads the battle

King Saud was the first to contact President Abdel Nasser, and the first to declare public mobilization the morning after the aggression (October 29, 1956). He offered the Egyptian president every help he could offer. And then decided to cut off oil from Britain and France on Novemner 6th of that year. With this effect, Syria and Jordan followed the example of Saudi Arabia. Demonstrations took place in Beirut and Bahrain, and the Libyans revolted. The British government asked its citizens to leave the country. King Idris al-Sanusi took an honorable stance with Egypt by disallowing British forces passage through its territory. Egypt declared a state of emergency, as well as Lebanon.

The following is the text of the communiqué issued by the Ministry of Defense and Aviation in Saudi Arabia:
• In view of the emergency, the Minister of Defense and Aviation orders all officers, staff and soldiers immediately to return to their units.
• The return must be expedited.
• The princes, district commanders and airport managers should ask all those who are visiting them to go back to their designated areas.
• The Saudi Army is heading to Jordan.

• Opening of volunteer offices.

• The Ministry of Defense has opened volunteer offices throughout the Kingdom, accepting those who want to volunteer to join the Arab armies. Many of them were Saudi princes who took up arms and participated in military exercises.

King Saud not only made this decision, but he himself went to the Ministry of Defense and personally supervised the volunteer operations and the hand out of weapons.

This Ministry in Ghada issued the following statement:
"The Saudi army moved to Jordan, and is now about to enter the Jordanian border, in solidarity with its Arab brothers and the purpose of sending it to Jordan is to be close to the field of battle."

King Saud appeals to Kings and Presidents

King Saud immediately sent cables to the King of Morocco, the King of Libya, the Imam of Yemen, the Presidents of Syria, Lebanon, Sudan and other Arab countries, calling for supporting Egypt and standing by its side.
"We learned this morning, the Jewish assault on Egyptian territory, and this is not surprised by this treacherous category because their goal to eliminate all Arabs. What we want is the initiative of public mobilization and the willingness to defend the Arab countries against the oppression of the Jews. We have ordered public mobilization, readiness to do our duty, and we hope to join together to defend the Arab countries and respond to aggression. And we hope that God will support his words. "

The following cable was sent to President Nasser:
"I learned of the Jewish aggression this morning, and we and our forces and all our capabilities are present to help in the response to the aggression. And as long as they started this aggression, the shay get what they deserve."
He received the following response:
"I thank you for the blessing you gave on the occasion of the Jewish aggression, and it was because of its sincere solidarity that it had a deep impact on me. I am confident that God will care for us, and decides for us a steadfast victory in honor of the pride of the Arabs."

Source: History of King Saud by Salim Wakim


Oil embargo in the Suez war

In support of King Saud to the Arab countries, and after securing the Suez Canal Company in the month of Dhu al-Hijjah 1375 AH (July 26, 1956), and although the Egyptian government did not consult or involve with Syria in making this decision contrary to expectations as a military ally, but he rose to support Egypt despite the seriousness of the reaction that can occur because of it. He was able to win the King of Iraq, Faisal II to his coalition through a meeting in Dammam in December 1367 AH (20 December 1956) followed by a meeting with President Gamal Abdel Nasser and Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli who also expressed support and full support for Egypt's position in this crisis.
When the tripartite aggression against Egypt which occurred on October 29, 1956, as a result of the insurance decision, King Saud announced the general mobilization and ordered the opening of volunteer offices. He offered the Egyptian government every assistance, supervised the operations personally and housed Egyptian warplanes to protect them from destruction. The first volunteers were Prince Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz, Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz, Prince Fahd bin Saud and many princes.
As a means of putting pressure on the British and French governments, King Saud cut off oil from them as a weapon not previously encountered by these countries, and prevented "all British and French ships" and other vessels destined for these countries from Saudi oil. And he also cut ties with them. King Saud used the weapon of oil for the first time despite knowing the negative consequences that this step could have on the local economy [1] 
And in order to relieve the effects that the aggression had on Egypt he continued his support even after the war, through a donation of two million riyals to the Egyptian Red Crescent to help the victims of the devastated city of Port Said, and his support of his desire to see the region free of political blocs which support one superpower against another. And despite his huge dependance on the US for oil discovery and refinement, he was serious about canceling the facilities provided to the United States by using Dhahran airport as a means of pressure.




  1. ^  ( 488. P ) , 1960 MECHLN, BENOIST , LEROISAUD, PARIS.